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For example, a police force that works closely with community groups may find that it can engage in more intrusive actions in that community without raising the distrust of community leaders. Archived from the original on 20 December Police as Information Brokers Some researchers have argued that by the late 20th century, the core police capacity had shifted from being purely that of coercion to that of information gathering, processing, analysis, and dissemination Ericson and Haggerty, For example, they found that departments with only sworn officers typically placed 4. All else equal, police were more likely to use coercive authority against blacks in predominantly black areas than in white areas. Patrol generalists, who were responsible for responding to calls for service, were expected to have their actions suffused with the department's community policing philosophy and to engage in community policing as time permitted. The justifications for decentralization have been several, but two stand out.

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In Indianapolis, the department where police leaders emphasized the need to deal with public disorders aggressively, CPOs were less likely to spend time on handling these problems than patrol generalists, even though the special- ists were freed from answering calls for service so that they could spend more time on these problems.

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First, it is believed to be an effective means of concentrating expertise in an organizational unit, focusing the mission of that unit on the proper exercise of that exper- tise, and rewarding its members accordingly. This made it harder to develop knowledge of and contact in par- ticular geographic areas, a trend accelerated by the increasingly common practice of frequently rotating beat assignments precisely to prevent too much familiarity and corruption between the patrol officer and the resi- dents Mastrofski, Arrest Rates Arrest rates represent one of the most visible output measures of police agencies. The degree of job specialization appears to be increasing among American police agencies. For example, Dragnet and Adam 12 depicted big-city police as legal- istic, technically sophisticated, and enforcement-oriented, while Andy of Mayberry showed small-town law enforcement as service-oriented, human- istic, and inclined to seek less coercive, informal solutions to problems. Additionally, he noted that, like the Ostrom data, his sample displayed considerable variability in both agency size and patrol mobiliza. When higher ranks are not held closely accountable for the performance of their subordi- nates, the effects of management's policies may be quickly diffused.

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After all, police of- ficers who behave in a civil, professional manner are likely to generate fewer complaints than officers who behave in a rude, abrasive, unprofessional manner. Researchers noted that small departments generally have a less intensive workload than larger ones, thereby giving officers more available time to initiate time-consuming DUI stops, and smaller communities may tend to see drunk-driving enforcement as a higher priority Mastrofski et al. Although some of their motiva- tion clearly derived from a desire not to lose their prestigious job assign- ment by looking bad to top management, the most powerful motivation appeared to be not looking bad before the entire audience, especially their peers. However, there have been few studies of the effects of police job specialization of either form, and the results are mixed. Sherman and Langworthy offer mixed con- clusions about the utility of vital statistics data for explaining variation in lethal force rates across cities.

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