Recently, some work based on the US census has suggested otherwise, but those studies have considerable drawbacks. Parent practices and home-school partnerships: The 80 participating families, all of whom had conceived children using the resources of a single sperm bank, included 55 families headed by lesbian and 25 families headed by heterosexual parents. Scientific research indicates that the children of same-sex couples fare just as well or even better than the children of opposite-sex couples. Participants often felt protective of their parents and the gay community, and some went to great efforts to defend them to peers, family members, and society. Although overall psychological functioning of the NLLFS adolescents fell within the healthy range, stigmatization had a negative impact on the well-being of some adolescents.
Findings from a longitudinal study of lesbian families.
Mothers raising their child without a father reported more severe disputes with their child than did mothers in father-present families. In comparison with the scores of an age-matched normative sample, no significant differences in scores were found. We identified 79 scholarly studies that met our criteria for adding to knowledge about the well-being of children with gay or lesbian parents. Others are only informed about the non-traditional family structure when they ask questions about it. Another potential factor of importance is the possibility of social desirability bias when research subjects respond in ways that present themselves and their families in the most desirable light possible.
In a review comparing single-father families with other family types, Stacey and Biblarz state, "We know very little yet about how parents influence the development of their children's sexual identities or how these intersect with gender. Click here to jump to the 4 studies concluding that children of gay or lesbian parents face added disadvantages. This meta-analysis summa- rizes the available quantitative literature comparing the impact of heterosexual and homosexual parents, using a variety of measures, on the child ren. Children in lesbian and single-parent households: Studies and analyses include Bridget Fitzgerald's analysis of the research on gay and lesbian parenting, published in Marriage and Family Reviewwhich found that the available studies generally concluded that "the sexual orientation of parents is not an effective or important predictor of successful childhood development"  and Gregory M. Homophobia had a negative impact on the well-being of children who experienced it.