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Some chansonniers have received both Occitan and French letters: The Poetry of Cercamon and Jaufre Rudel. Most of the vidas were composed in Italy in the s, many by Uc de Saint Circ. The trobar ric style is not as opaque as the clusrather it employs a rich vocabulary, using many words, rare words, invented words, and unusual, colourful wordings. The lettering siglas was introduced by Karl Bartschwho placed sources he considered more reliable higher in the alphabet. It has the support of some historians, specialists of literature and musicologists to justify of the troubadours' origins in Arabic Andalusian musical practices.

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Miralhas was possibly a potter and Bernart was a mayestre teacher.

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Troubadour

Beginning in the early 13th century, the spread of Occitan verse demanded grammars and dictionaries, especially for those whose native tongue was not Occitan, such as the Catalan and Italian troubadours, and their imitators. Typically, they stayed in one place for a lengthy period of time under the patronage of a wealthy nobleman or woman. In the late 13th century Guiraut Riquier bemoaned the inexactness of his contemporaries and wrote a letter to Alfonso X of Castilea noted patron of literature and learning of all kinds, for clarification on the proper reference of the terms trobador and joglar. Some troubadours, like Arnaut de Maruelhhad their own jongleurs who were dedicated to singing their patron's work. One salut d'amorby a woman Azalais d'Altier to a woman Clara d'Anduza is also extant and one anonymous planh is usually assigned a female authorship. In the chansonniersthe manuscript collections of medieval troubadour poetry, the works of a particular author are often accompanied by a short prose biography. Bertran de Born uses the term miei sirventes.

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The vidas of the following troubadours note their clerical status: Peter Dronke, author of The Medieval Lyrichowever, believes that "[his] songs represent not the beginnings of a tradition but summits of achievement in that tradition. The lettering siglas was introduced by Karl Bartschwho placed sources he considered more reliable higher in the alphabet. The clus style was invented early by Marcabru but only favoured by a few masters thereafter. Contains more troubadour music than any other manuscript.

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