Although the use of MRI scans has increased in recent decades few such studies have focused on transgender people. The findings, presented at the European Society of Endocrinology annual meeting in Barcelona, are likely to provoke controversy among groups who argue gender identity should be matter of personal choice and not medical definition. Harry Benjamin  considered the causes of transsexuality to be badly understood, and argued that researchers were biased towards considering psychological causes over biological causes. Responding to this question can be more precise by consideration of cultural neuroscience concepts, particularly a culture—behavior—brain CBB model and the interactions between behavior, culture and brain. The results may not have much effect on how gender dysphoria is diagnosed and treated, notes Baudewijntje Kreukelswho studies gender incongruence at VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam. Retrieved 14 June
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Are the Brains of Transgender People Different from Those of Cisgender People?
Cognitive-behavioral therapy with emphasis on spiritual therapy in treatment of transsexualism: European Journal of Endocrinology. A Dutch study similarly concluded that the overall brain volumes of transgender women dropped as a result of treatment, while those of transgender men increased, particularly in the hypothalamus Eur J Endocrinol These guidelines are periodically updated and adapted in response to new knowledge. The researchers found sex-typical differentiation between the MtF transsexuals and cisgender males, and the cisgender females; but the gynephilic transsexuals "displayed also singular features and differed from both control groups by having reduced thalamus and putamen volumes and elevated GM volumes in the right insular and inferior frontal cortex and an area covering the right angular gyrus ".
Understanding cultural differences in human behavior: The authors concluded that their evidence demonstrated CTh feminization for MtF. As such, its findings should be interpreted with caution. Related Provincial grant helping transgender support program at CMHA in Peterborough Is the world more accepting of transgender people? Callosal shapes at the mid-sagittal plane: Although the etiology of gender dysphoria or transsexualism is still unknown, different neuroimaging studies show that structural and functional changes of the brain result from this sexual incongruence.